Title: RNPP Meeting Fall 2021 Meeting Slides
Date: September 14th 2021
Author: Kathryn Prive
Meeting slides presented at the fall partnership meeting on September 14th 2021 via Zoom.
Title: RNPP Meeting Fall 2021 Meeting Slides
Date: September 14th 2021
Author: Kathryn Prive
Meeting slides presented at the fall partnership meeting on September 14th 2021 via Zoom.
Title: RNPP | TUI Seed Production Business Plan
Date: September 2021
This business plan was developed to help land managers appropriately plan their future seeding efforts both in terms of time management and seed-cost projections by taking into account the full life cycle of seed production. We hope this business plan will also help local farmers have realistic expectations about seed pricing and production timelines.
Author: Kathryn Prive
Title: RNPP & Climate Change
Authors: The Rogue Native Plant Partnership | Eugene Weir | Tuula Rebhan | Kathryn Prive
Date: September 2021
An overview of the goals and actions the RNPP plans to take to address climate change.
Download: RNPP & Climate Change (45 KB)
Author: Southern Oregon Monarch Advocates Date: 2016
This excellent guide discusses basic botanical concepts and the importance of pollinators in the ecosystem. It then describes 18 plants that are native to Southern Oregon, sorted by early, mid- and late-blooming species, with beautiful photographs. Each plant is listed with information about the types of pollinators that may use it for nectar, or as a “host plant”.
Download: Native Pollinator Plants of Southern Oregon (pdf; 4 Mb)
Author: Rogue Native Plant Partnership Date: March 2021
All the data about which species were sold, quantities, and how we managed a plant sale in a pandemic!
Download: Spring 2020 Plant Sale Summary Report (pdf; 3 MB)
Author: Klamath Bird Observatory & Lomakatsi Restoration Project Date: 2020
This guide was created for streamside landowners interested in implementing restoration projects to improve wildlife habitat and stream health. It includes information on birds and wildlife that use riparian habitats, detailed restoration guidelines, and who to contact for technical or financial help when initiating a project. It also covers how to identify common riparian birds and use them to monitor restoration progress, and a visual guide to common native and non- native riparian plant species.
Author: Scientific Reports Date: 2021
This study examines the interaction of the wild bee communities and honey bees kept in hives around wildflower strips and pollinator-dependent crops. The study took place across 21 farms in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. The real beauty of this publication is the extensive literature cited section with links to the cited publications, many of which focus on honey bee/native bee competition and effects on species richness and abundance.
This meeting was held via Google Meet. We received partner updates and an overview of RNPP activity in the past year. Our guest speaker, Christopher Adlam of OSU Extension, discussed impacts of the Almeda Fire and habitat restoration.
Author: Christopher Adlam, PhD, OSU Extension Regional Fire Specialist for Southwest Oregon
Date: December 8, 2020
Chris Adlam was the guest speaker at the December 8, 2020 RNPP meeting. These are the slides from his presentation. A summary of his talk can be found here on our blog.
This 5-year strategic plan is meant to serve as a guide towards meeting the challenges of native plant production and ecological restoration in the Rogue Basin region.
The Riparian Lands Tax Incentive Program (RLTIP), administered by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW, referred to as the Department throughout this document), is a cooperative effort involving county and city governments with other partners to help private landowners voluntarily conserve and rehabilitate riparian zones. The program offers landowners a full property tax exemption for riparian lands up to 100ft from a stream, provided landowners file and meet the terms of a riparian management plan to protect, conserve, and rehabilitate the riparian land on their property.
This document provides an outline of the restoration / rehabilitation plan that needs to be in place to apply for the tax exemption.
Download (PDF): Riparian Lands Tax Incentive Program: Manual for Landowners (741KB)
Ecological restoration, when implemented effectively and sustainably, contributes to protecting biodiversity; improving human health and wellbeing; increasing food and water security; delivering goods, services, and economic prosperity; and supporting climate change mitigation, resilience, and adaptation. It is a solutions-based approach that engages communities, scientists, policymakers, and land managers to repair ecological damage and rebuild a healthier relationship between people and the rest of nature. When combined with conservation and sustainable use, ecological restoration is the link needed to move local, regional, and global environmental conditions from a state of continued degradation, to one of net positive improvement. The second edition of the International Principles and Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration (the Standards) presents a robust framework for restoration projects to achieve intended goals, while addressing challenges including effective design and implementation, accounting for complex ecosystem dynamics (especially in the context of climate change), and navigating trade-offs associated with land management priorities and decisions.
Download (PDF): International Principles and Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration (11 MB)
Author: US Environmental Protection Agency Date: 2002
This introductory document covers topics including: why use native plants?, planning a native plant project, site evaluation, choosing appropriate species, sourcing seeds and plants, preparing the site, weed control, planting techniques, caring for the site, monitoring, and more.
Download PDF: An Introduction to Using Native Plants in Restoration Projects (805 KB)
Monarch butterflies are in decline in North America, and restoring monarch habitat, including roadsides, is important to the species’ recovery. Monarch caterpillars require milkweed (primarily in the genus Asclepias) to complete their development. A diversity of milkweed species is found on roadsides, and monarchs lay their eggs readily on milkweed plants in roadsides and consume nectar from milkweed flowers.
Roadsides provide more than just milkweed. They can also provide diverse nectar sources to feed adult monarchs and other pollinators—but ensuring that roadsides can continue to provide the best habitat requires some thought and care. This guide highlights best management practices to reduce the impacts of herbicides on monarchs.
Download PDF: Roadside Habitat for Monarchs: Monarch Butterflies, Weeds, and Herbicides (548KB)
Organic agriculture generally supports higher biodiversity than conventional management, and organic farms can play an important role in protecting and supporting bees and other beneficial insects in agricultural landscapes. Many organic operations already have good numbers of wild bees, as well as predators and parasitoids that attack crop pests. These beneficial species may provide most or all necessary crop pollination and pest control services when adequate habitat is available and preventive non-chemical pest management practices are implemented.
Unfortunately, however, even pesticides allowed for use in organic agriculture can cause harm to bees and other beneficial insects. There are many considerations when choosing between different pesticide options, including efficacy, specificity, cost, and risks to human health and the environment. This guide provides a brief overview of how to select and apply pesticides for organic farm operations while minimizing pollinator mortality. Many of the practices outlined here for protecting pollinators also can help to protect beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps and flies; predaceous wasps, flies, and beetles; ambush and assassin bugs; lacewings; and others. The presence of these insects can further reduce pest pressure and the need for chemical treatments.
Download PDF: Organic Pesticides: Minimizing Risks to Pollinators and Beneficial Insects (2MB)
Site preparation is one of the most important and often inadequately addressed components for successfully installing pollinator habitat. These guidelines provide step-by-step instructions, helpful suggestions, and regional timelines & checklists for preparing both small and large sites using:
Download PDF: Organic Site Preparation for Wildflower Establishment (6MB)
The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is to formalize the cooperative effort among the Rogue Native Plant Partnership’s member organizations and meet the following goals:
Download PDF: RNPP Memorandum of Understanding (14MB)
Project Milkweed is a collaboration with the Xerces Society, the native seed industry, and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to increase commercial availability of milkweed seed. Since 2010 this partnership has worked to address some of the major production challenges faced by the native seed industry and has expanded commercially viable milkweed production to regions where seed was not previously available.
During Project Milkweed surveys of native seed producers, yield loss from insect pests was consistently the most significant challenge reported. Further complicating the situation is the abundance of monarch butterfly caterpillars, crop pollinators, and predatory insects, all of which are typically found in seed production plots and which are vulnerable to insecticides used for pest control.
Download PDF: Managing Milkweed Crop Pests: A Native Seed Industry Guide (3MB)
Native thistles are a largely misunderstood and wrongly maligned group of wildflowers. These diverse plants fill a variety of significant ecological niches, similar to cone flowers, prairie clovers, camas, and compass plant. Native thistles are not only resplendent – with sublime blue-green foliage, interesting stem and leaf architecture and gorgeous blossoms – they are hardy, thriving in dry and disturbed habitats.
Download PDF: Native Thistles: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide (3MB)
This bulletin will help you use cover crops to encourage populations of pollinators and beneficial insects on your farm while you address your other resource concerns. It begins with a broad overview of pollinator and beneficial insect ecology, then describes cover crop selection and management, how to make cover crops work on your farm, and helpful and proven crop rotations. It will also touch on the limitations of cover crops and pesticide harm reduction, among other topics.
Download PDF: Cover Cropping for Pollinators and Beneficial Insects (727KB)
Native wildflowers are the backbone of pollinator habitat on the farm. Field borders, filter strips, pastures, hedgerows, and other places where wildflowers (and grasses!) grow also provide us with natural pest control by sustaining predators of crop pests. Additionally, these plants help filter runoff from fields, and protect soil from erosion. Despite the benefits that native wildflowers and grasses provide, the cost of seed can be daunting. Fortunately, if you have native plant areas already established, they can provide you with a readily available source for additional seed.
While harvesting seed from existing wildflowers around the farm may not yield huge volumes, it can provide you with the raw material to gradually create more habitat on the farm. By collecting seed from plants already growing on your land, you are also focusing your efforts on species that are known to perform well on your soils. In this document we outline the basic steps of collecting native plant seed using readily available, non-specialized equipment. While our focus is primarily on wildflowers, many of these same techniques can be useful for collecting native grasses as well as seeds from trees and shrubs.
To boost healthy populations of both wild resident bees and managed pollinators, the single most effective action you can take is to plant native wild flower habitat. This tangible course of action can be accomplished by anyone at any scale. The process behind establishing a wild flower-rich pollinator planting from seed consists of five basic steps:
The steps outlined in this document are applicable to plantings that range in size from a small backyard garden up to areas around an acre.
Download PDF: Establishing Pollinator Meadows From Seed (2MB)
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide information about native bees and their habitat requirements so that farmers can manage the land around their fields to provide the greatest advantage for these crop pollinators. These guidelines will help growers and conservationists:
Making small changes to increase the number of native pollinators on a farm does not require a lot of work. Subtle changes in farm practices can involve identifying and protecting nesting sites and forage, choosing cover crop species that provide abundant pollen and nectar, allowing crops to go to flower before plowing them under, or changing how pesticides are applied in order to have the least negative impact on bees.
Download PDF: Farming For Bees: Guidelines for Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms (3MB)
Milkweed plants (family Asclepiadaceae) are the only food source for monarch butter y caterpillars. However, milkweed has severely declined in North America due to drastic changes in land use or management, like agriculture and development. Milkweed losses and other stressors are associated with declines in migratory monarch butterflies over the past 20 years [1, 6, 7]. To compensate for the loss of milkweed, gardeners across North America are helping monarchs by planting native species of milkweeds, and by keeping milkweeds safe from pesticides.
Download PDF: Why Grow and Sell Native Milkweed? (839KB)
Five species of milkweed are native to Oregon. This guide includes profiles of the four most common species, all of which are used as a larval host plant by the monarch butterfly.
Asclepias cordifolia (purple milkweed, heartleaf milkweed)
Asclepias cryptoceras ssp. davisii (Davis’ milkweed)
Asclepias fascicularis (narrow-leaved milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
A profile of each of these species includes descriptions of flowers, leaves, and seed pods, accompanied by photos and distribution maps. Supporting these profiles is a simple guide to identifying milkweeds based on their distinctive flowers and fruits.
Download PDF: A Guide to the Native Milkweeds of Oregon (836 KB)
Phytophthora species are some of the most problematic plant pathogens in nursery production systems. The quarantine pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has received the most notoriety, but many Phytophthora species pose a challenge for nursery growers.
These pathogens cause trouble because of their persistence and spread in infested soil and water, and their ability to attack a wide variety of plants. Some species cause root rot, whereas others cause foliar blight and shoot dieback. Several species can infect plant parts both above and below the ground.
In collaboration with Niklaus Grünwald and Val Fieland of the USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, Carrie Lewis and I (Oregon State University) recently completed a three-year project to determine the most common sources of Phytophthora contamination in nurseries. We applied a systems approach to identify three critical control points in nursery production systems: contaminated soil/gravel beds, contaminated irrigation water, and used pots. Another potential source of Phytophthora spp., not included in our study, is nursery stock brought in from off site.
Details historical information, ecological impacts, biology and ecology, mechanical, cultural, chemical and biological control, and how to develop a management plan for eradication of yellow starthistle.
Download (PDF): Yellow Starthistle Management Guide (8 MB)
Yellow starthistle is an invasive plant that has been listed as a noxious weed in Arizona and New Mexico. This field guide serves as the U.S. Forest Service’s recommendations for management of yellow starthistle in forests, woodlands, rangelands, and deserts associated with its Southwestern Region. The Southwestern Region covers Arizona and New Mexico, which together have 11 national forests. The Region also includes four national grasslands located in northeastern New Mexico, western Oklahoma, and the Texas panhandle.
Download (PDF): Field Guide for Managing Yellow Starthistle in the Southwest (2 MB)
Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and provides access to the largest natural resource information system in the world. NRCS has soil maps and data available online for more than 95 percent of the nation’s counties and anticipates having 100 percent in the near future. The site is updated and maintained online as the single authoritative source of soil survey information.
Visit website: USDA Web Soil Survey
The major audience for this book, as for its two predecessors, is those who are involved in the growing and planting of trees and shrubs. Their involvement can be collection and sale of seeds, production of nursery stock (both bare- root and container), or planting itself. Planting for commercial forest production is the traditional mainstay of tree planting, but planting for wildlife food, watershed protection, urban environmental improvement, ornamental enhancement, wetland mitigation, and carbon sequestration are all on the increase. Ecosystem management, now commonly used in the management of many federal and other governmental forest lands, has decreased the use of planting to regenerate the forests and has increased the role of natural regeneration. Those who apply these practices will find this book useful also in the data on flowering and seed production. Although the book is not intended to be a detailed textbook on seed ecology and physiology, there is sufficient scope and depth to the material included to make it useful to anyone who studies seeds.
Download (PDF): The Woody Plant Seed Manual (21MB)
The mycorrhizal symbiosis is well known, but not yet in widespread use in the com- mercial nursery trade. The often-cited mycorrhizal growth response is in not the most signi cant mycorrhizal effect. Instead, the important effects are performance in the eld and improved nutrition and disease resistance in the nursery. These bene ts may be of use in meeting regulatory requirements related to fertilizer runoff and pesticide use. A nursery mycorrhiza program requires modi cation of some current practices and careful choice of appropriate fungi.
Download (PDF): Use of Mycorrhizae for Native Plant Production (120KB)
The deep dormancy exhibited by seeds of many native plants can lead to the under estimation of total viability in laboratory tests. Pre-treatment of dormant seeds with gibberellic acid to break dormancy prior to testing for germination or total viability can give a more accurate assessment of seed quality.
Download (PDF): Techniques to Determine Total Viability in Native Seed (93KB)
Seeds of 69 taxa native to the Willamette Valley, Oregon were subjected to four germination treatments: two under ambient late winter into summer environmental conditions (untreated (fresh) seed or dry and frozen seed) and two in controlled environment chambers (some seed was cold stratified at 5°C then placed in a 10°C/20°C chamber, other seed was placed in 10°C/20°C chamber then moved to a 5°C/15°C chamber). At least 93% of the taxa tested can tolerate desiccation and frozen storage.
One third of the taxa had a maximum mean germination above 80% in at least one of the four germination treatments, 55% of the taxa had a maximum mean germination rate between 10% and 80%, and only 12 % of the taxa had less than 10% germination. A total of 88% of the taxa had their highest germination in one or both of the two treatments, fresh and cold stratification.
Salvaging native plants is the act of rescuing plants from a construction or disturbance site before they are destroyed. We have not found salvage to be a cost effective method for obtaining most of the plants we sell in our nursery or use in our own projects. However, we do sometimes salvage plants, either to obtain plants that are dif cult to propagate, to increase the genetic diversity of plants in our nursery, because they are unusual species that we don’t have access to otherwise, or to preserve plant genetics on a disturbance site for future replanting. Factors important to consider in salvaging plants include species, size, site access and soil type, whether to use hand or mechanical techniques, time of year, available crew, etc.
Download (PDF): Salvaging Plants for Propagation and Revegetation (275KB)
Native plant nurseries face different challenges than traditional forest and conservation nurseries. They must educate their customers to the practical limitations of propagating native plants such as the poor availability of seeds or vegetative propagation material. The unusually long amount of time to collect propagules, treat seeds or cuttings, and grow the seedlings emphasizes the need for crop planning well in advance of the outplanting date. The concept of “source-identified, locally-adapted” planting stock must continually be stressed when dealing with native plant customers. New products mean new markets so nurseries should try to produce a range of species and stock types and show them to prospective customers. Native plant nurseries and customers should establish networks to better exchange information. Although there are few incentives to do so, both nurseries and seedling users should strive to share techniques about collecting seed and cuttings, seed treatments, and cultural techniques. Attending professional meetings and presenting propagation and outplanting information is one of the most effective ways to network. Publishing propagation protocols on the Internet is an exciting new way to share technical information.
Download (PDF): Ruminations and Ramblings About Native Plant Propagation (313KB)
J. Herbert Stone Nursery produces over 20,000 pounds of native grass seed annually from 36 species endemic to public lands in the western states. Nursery seedbeds are established from wild seed collections. Each collection (referred to as seedlot) is grown separately from other seedlots of same species to prevent cross pollen contamination. Sowing, culturing, harvesting and storage practices for seed and seedling production are discussed. Methods and strategies for achieving successful restoration projects using native grass seed and seedlings are also addressed.
Download (PDF): Propagating Native Grass Seed and Seedlings (202KB)
Details different methods of seed storage, different types of seed storage structures, temperature control methods, packaging materials, monitoring methods, and more.
Download (PDF): Principles and Practices of Seed Storage (11MB)
The genetic variation contained within a species is paramount for its survival and future evolution. Species exhibit a large range in their levels and patterns of genetic variation. This range in population structure is basic to the use and conservation of genetic diversity in plants. In order to understand, conserve, and manage plant populations, it is necessary to measure the levels of genetic variation within a species. We have at our disposal a variety of estimation tools. These tools provide information about plant identity, taxonomy, hybridization, parentage and mating systems, and levels and structure of genetic diversity. Genetic information can be used to guide restoration and revegetation projects, conservation concerns, and seed transfer movement. Our role at NFGEL is to conduct laboratory genetic tests and provide information to land managers so that they may better utilize and manage plant species.
Download (PDF): Genetic Studies in Native Plants (209KB)
Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) seeds can be extracted and cleaned in a procedure which utilizes a mortar and pestle, a blender with a rubber blade, and several sieves. The method involves several steps but is not difficult and can result in a large amount of seed in a short period of time. Following extraction, the seeds can be dried and stored at low moisture content (6%) in sealed containers at 3-5°C or given a cold strati cation treatment and then sown. Cold stratification periods of 60 days or longer increased the initial rate of germination compared to seeds stratified for 40 days but resulted in seed losses due to premature germination during stratification. For lots from the Puget Sound Lowlands, cold stratification for 40 days is adequate; seeds in stratification longer than 40 days should be monitored closely for premature germination.
Download (PDF): Extraction and Germination of Pacific Madrone Seed (150KB)
The Oregon Plant Atlas allows the user to generate customized plant distribution maps from herbarium specimen and observation data. The default search results displayed are “Flora vouchers”, specimens from the OSU Herbarium and selected vouchers from other herbaria. These serve as reference material for the upcoming Flora of Oregon. Any combination of available specimens or unvouchered observations can be mapped by selecting the appropriate checkboxes.
Visit (website): Oregon Flora Plant Atlas
The Native Plant Network is devoted to the sharing of information on how to propagate native plants of North America (US, Canada, Mexico and the Pacific Islands). Search the database for extensive details on how to propagate different plants, or scroll through alphabetically.
Visit (website): Native Plant Network Propagation Protocols
This guide has been developed to facilitate the placement of large wood, boulders and gravel in a manner consistent with these principles and regulations in Oregon. These techniques, when done independently or in conjunction with other restoration activities, increase the channel complexity and diversity of habitat necessary to help restore and support a healthy aquatic ecosystem.
Download (Word): Guide to Placement of Wood, Boulders and Gravel for Habitat Restoration (4MB)
This guide is organized by the four priority habitat types: oak woodlands; wetlands; bottomland hardwood and riparian forests; and grasslands and prairies. A brief discussion of each habitat is followed by restoration considerations and techniques. References or sources of information are denoted by superscript numbers that refer to entries in the bibliography. Restorationists wishing to obtain additional information or delve more deeply into a topic may want to review these references.
Download (PDF): Restoring Rare Native Habitats in the Willamette Valley (2MB)
This landowner guide describes how to apply conservation practices for Oregon white oak and California black oak habitats on private lands in southern Oregon and northern California. The document first discusses the importance and history of oak habitats and then provides detailed conservation guidelines for oak habitat restoration. Also, the guide includes supplemental resources for the restoration- minded private landowner, including a list of organizations that will assist with private lands restoration as well as step-by-step instructions for monitoring birds on your land to track the return of wildlife following oak restoration activities.
Download (PDF): Restoring Oak Habitats in Southern Oregon & Northern California (4MB)