This 5-year strategic plan is meant to serve as a guide towards meeting the challenges of native plant production and ecological restoration in the Rogue Basin region.
The Riparian Lands Tax Incentive Program (RLTIP), administered by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW, referred to as the Department throughout this document), is a cooperative effort involving county and city governments with other partners to help private landowners voluntarily conserve and rehabilitate riparian zones. The program offers landowners a full property tax exemption for riparian lands up to 100ft from a stream, provided landowners file and meet the terms of a riparian management plan to protect, conserve, and rehabilitate the riparian land on their property.
This document provides an outline of the restoration / rehabilitation plan that needs to be in place to apply for the tax exemption.
Download (PDF): Riparian Lands Tax Incentive Program: Manual for Landowners (741KB)
Ecological restoration, when implemented effectively and sustainably, contributes to protecting biodiversity; improving human health and wellbeing; increasing food and water security; delivering goods, services, and economic prosperity; and supporting climate change mitigation, resilience, and adaptation. It is a solutions-based approach that engages communities, scientists, policymakers, and land managers to repair ecological damage and rebuild a healthier relationship between people and the rest of nature. When combined with conservation and sustainable use, ecological restoration is the link needed to move local, regional, and global environmental conditions from a state of continued degradation, to one of net positive improvement. The second edition of the International Principles and Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration (the Standards) presents a robust framework for restoration projects to achieve intended goals, while addressing challenges including effective design and implementation, accounting for complex ecosystem dynamics (especially in the context of climate change), and navigating trade-offs associated with land management priorities and decisions.
Download (PDF): International Principles and Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration (11 MB)
Author: US Environmental Protection Agency Date: 2002
This introductory document covers topics including: why use native plants?, planning a native plant project, site evaluation, choosing appropriate species, sourcing seeds and plants, preparing the site, weed control, planting techniques, caring for the site, monitoring, and more.
Download PDF: An Introduction to Using Native Plants in Restoration Projects (805 KB)
Monarch butterflies are in decline in North America, and restoring monarch habitat, including roadsides, is important to the species’ recovery. Monarch caterpillars require milkweed (primarily in the genus Asclepias) to complete their development. A diversity of milkweed species is found on roadsides, and monarchs lay their eggs readily on milkweed plants in roadsides and consume nectar from milkweed flowers.
Roadsides provide more than just milkweed. They can also provide diverse nectar sources to feed adult monarchs and other pollinators—but ensuring that roadsides can continue to provide the best habitat requires some thought and care. This guide highlights best management practices to reduce the impacts of herbicides on monarchs.
Download PDF: Roadside Habitat for Monarchs: Monarch Butterflies, Weeds, and Herbicides (548KB)
Organic agriculture generally supports higher biodiversity than conventional management, and organic farms can play an important role in protecting and supporting bees and other beneficial insects in agricultural landscapes. Many organic operations already have good numbers of wild bees, as well as predators and parasitoids that attack crop pests. These beneficial species may provide most or all necessary crop pollination and pest control services when adequate habitat is available and preventive non-chemical pest management practices are implemented.
Unfortunately, however, even pesticides allowed for use in organic agriculture can cause harm to bees and other beneficial insects. There are many considerations when choosing between different pesticide options, including efficacy, specificity, cost, and risks to human health and the environment. This guide provides a brief overview of how to select and apply pesticides for organic farm operations while minimizing pollinator mortality. Many of the practices outlined here for protecting pollinators also can help to protect beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps and flies; predaceous wasps, flies, and beetles; ambush and assassin bugs; lacewings; and others. The presence of these insects can further reduce pest pressure and the need for chemical treatments.
Download PDF: Organic Pesticides: Minimizing Risks to Pollinators and Beneficial Insects (2MB)
Site preparation is one of the most important and often inadequately addressed components for successfully installing pollinator habitat. These guidelines provide step-by-step instructions, helpful suggestions, and regional timelines & checklists for preparing both small and large sites using:
- Smother cropping
- Repeated shallow cultivation
- Sheet mulching
- Soil inversion
- Organic herbicide applications
- Sod removal
Download PDF: Organic Site Preparation for Wildflower Establishment (6MB)
Project Milkweed is a collaboration with the Xerces Society, the native seed industry, and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to increase commercial availability of milkweed seed. Since 2010 this partnership has worked to address some of the major production challenges faced by the native seed industry and has expanded commercially viable milkweed production to regions where seed was not previously available.
During Project Milkweed surveys of native seed producers, yield loss from insect pests was consistently the most significant challenge reported. Further complicating the situation is the abundance of monarch butterfly caterpillars, crop pollinators, and predatory insects, all of which are typically found in seed production plots and which are vulnerable to insecticides used for pest control.
Download PDF: Managing Milkweed Crop Pests: A Native Seed Industry Guide (3MB)
Native thistles are a largely misunderstood and wrongly maligned group of wildflowers. These diverse plants ll a variety of significant niches along more esteemed wildflowers including the cone flowers, prairie clovers, camas, and compass plant. While so many of those native wildflowers have been embraced by restoration practitioners, ultimately finding a place in our gardens and restored natural areas, appreciation for our native thistles never really caught on. is is too bad. With sublime blue-green foliage, interesting stem and leaf architecture, and pink blossoms, our native thistles are every bit as resplendent as countless other native plants.
Download PDF: Native Thistles: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide (3MB)
This bulletin will help you use cover crops to encourage populations of pollinators and beneficial insects on your farm while you address your other resource concerns. It begins with a broad overview of pollinator and beneficial insect ecology, then describes cover crop selection and management, how to make cover crops work on your farm, and helpful and proven crop rotations. It will also touch on the limitations of cover crops and pesticide harm reduction, among other topics.
Download PDF: Cover Cropping for Pollinators and Beneficial Insects (727KB)
Native wildflowers are the backbone of pollinator habitat on the farm. Field borders, filter strips, pastures, hedgerows, and other places where wildflowers (and grasses!) grow also provide us with natural pest control by sustaining predators of crop pests. Additionally, these plants help filter runoff from fields, and protect soil from erosion. Despite the benefits that native wildflowers and grasses provide, the cost of seed can be daunting. Fortunately, if you have native plant areas already established, they can provide you with a readily available source for additional seed.
While harvesting seed from existing wildflowers around the farm may not yield huge volumes, it can provide you with the raw material to gradually create more habitat on the farm. By collecting seed from plants already growing on your land, you are also focusing your efforts on species that are known to perform well on your soils. In this document we outline the basic steps of collecting native plant seed using readily available, non-specialized equipment. While our focus is primarily on wildflowers, many of these same techniques can be useful for collecting native grasses as well as seeds from trees and shrubs.
To boost healthy populations of both wild resident bees and managed pollinators, the single most effective action you can take is to plant native wild flower habitat. This tangible course of action can be accomplished by anyone at any scale. The process behind establishing a wild flower-rich pollinator planting from seed consists of five basic steps:
- Site selection
- Site preparation
- Plant selection
- Planting techniques
- Ongoing management
The steps outlined in this document are applicable to plantings that range in size from a small backyard garden up to areas around an acre.
Download PDF: Establishing Pollinator Meadows From Seed (2MB)
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide information about native bees and their habitat requirements so that farmers can manage the land around their fields to provide the greatest advantage for these crop pollinators. These guidelines will help growers and conservationists:
- understand how simple changes to farm practices can bene t native pollinators and farm productivity;
- protect, enhance, or restore habitat to increase the ability of farmlands to support these bees; and
- ultimately increase a grower’s reliance upon native bees for crop pollination.
Making small changes to increase the number of native pollinators on a farm does not require a lot of work. Subtle changes in farm practices can involve identifying and protecting nesting sites and forage, choosing cover crop species that provide abundant pollen and nectar, allowing crops to go to flower before plowing them under, or changing how pesticides are applied in order to have the least negative impact on bees.
Download PDF: Farming For Bees: Guidelines for Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms (3MB)
Details historical information, ecological impacts, biology and ecology, mechanical, cultural, chemical and biological control, and how to develop a management plan for eradication of yellow starthistle.
Download (PDF): Yellow Starthistle Management Guide (8 MB)
Yellow starthistle is an invasive plant that has been listed as a noxious weed in Arizona and New Mexico. This field guide serves as the U.S. Forest Service’s recommendations for management of yellow starthistle in forests, woodlands, rangelands, and deserts associated with its Southwestern Region. The Southwestern Region covers Arizona and New Mexico, which together have 11 national forests. The Region also includes four national grasslands located in northeastern New Mexico, western Oklahoma, and the Texas panhandle.
Download (PDF): Field Guide for Managing Yellow Starthistle in the Southwest (2 MB)
The major audience for this book, as for its two predecessors, is those who are involved in the growing and planting of trees and shrubs. Their involvement can be collection and sale of seeds, production of nursery stock (both bare- root and container), or planting itself. Planting for commercial forest production is the traditional mainstay of tree planting, but planting for wildlife food, watershed protection, urban environmental improvement, ornamental enhancement, wetland mitigation, and carbon sequestration are all on the increase. Ecosystem management, now commonly used in the management of many federal and other governmental forest lands, has decreased the use of planting to regenerate the forests and has increased the role of natural regeneration. Those who apply these practices will find this book useful also in the data on flowering and seed production. Although the book is not intended to be a detailed textbook on seed ecology and physiology, there is sufficient scope and depth to the material included to make it useful to anyone who studies seeds.
Download (PDF): The Woody Plant Seed Manual (21MB)
Salvaging native plants is the act of rescuing plants from a construction or disturbance site before they are destroyed. We have not found salvage to be a cost effective method for obtaining most of the plants we sell in our nursery or use in our own projects. However, we do sometimes salvage plants, either to obtain plants that are dif cult to propagate, to increase the genetic diversity of plants in our nursery, because they are unusual species that we don’t have access to otherwise, or to preserve plant genetics on a disturbance site for future replanting. Factors important to consider in salvaging plants include species, size, site access and soil type, whether to use hand or mechanical techniques, time of year, available crew, etc.
Download (PDF): Salvaging Plants for Propagation and Revegetation (275KB)
The genetic variation contained within a species is paramount for its survival and future evolution. Species exhibit a large range in their levels and patterns of genetic variation. This range in population structure is basic to the use and conservation of genetic diversity in plants. In order to understand, conserve, and manage plant populations, it is necessary to measure the levels of genetic variation within a species. We have at our disposal a variety of estimation tools. These tools provide information about plant identity, taxonomy, hybridization, parentage and mating systems, and levels and structure of genetic diversity. Genetic information can be used to guide restoration and revegetation projects, conservation concerns, and seed transfer movement. Our role at NFGEL is to conduct laboratory genetic tests and provide information to land managers so that they may better utilize and manage plant species.
Download (PDF): Genetic Studies in Native Plants (209KB)
The Native Plant Network is devoted to the sharing of information on how to propagate native plants of North America (US, Canada, Mexico and the Pacific Islands). Search the database for extensive details on how to propagate different plants, or scroll through alphabetically.
Visit (website): Native Plant Network Propagation Protocols
This guide has been developed to facilitate the placement of large wood, boulders and gravel in a manner consistent with these principles and regulations in Oregon. These techniques, when done independently or in conjunction with other restoration activities, increase the channel complexity and diversity of habitat necessary to help restore and support a healthy aquatic ecosystem.
Download (Word): Guide to Placement of Wood, Boulders and Gravel for Habitat Restoration (4MB)
This guide is organized by the four priority habitat types: oak woodlands; wetlands; bottomland hardwood and riparian forests; and grasslands and prairies. A brief discussion of each habitat is followed by restoration considerations and techniques. References or sources of information are denoted by superscript numbers that refer to entries in the bibliography. Restorationists wishing to obtain additional information or delve more deeply into a topic may want to review these references.
Download (PDF): Restoring Rare Native Habitats in the Willamette Valley (2MB)
This landowner guide describes how to apply conservation practices for Oregon white oak and California black oak habitats on private lands in southern Oregon and northern California. The document first discusses the importance and history of oak habitats and then provides detailed conservation guidelines for oak habitat restoration. Also, the guide includes supplemental resources for the restoration- minded private landowner, including a list of organizations that will assist with private lands restoration as well as step-by-step instructions for monitoring birds on your land to track the return of wildlife following oak restoration activities.
Download (PDF): Restoring Oak Habitats in Southern Oregon & Northern California (4MB)
The primary purpose of this Guide is to encourage private landowners to conserve, and when appropriate, actively manage Oregon white oaks that already exist on their property, and consider planting additional oaks. In the early chapters of the Guide, we describe some of the uses and benefits of this remarkable tree in hopes of motivating landowners to take action. An introduction to the ecology of the Oregon white oak is included so the reader can better understand how management practices are founded on aspects of the tree’s biology. Later chapters are designed to help landowners develop land management goals and understand the process of natural resource planning.
Download (PDF): A Landowner’s Guide for Restoring and Managing Oregon White Oak Habitats (7MB)
A brochure detailing information on what you can do to help keep riparian areas in Jackson County, OR healthy, and healthy riparian areas matter.
Download (PDF): Taking Care of Streams in Jackson County (1MB)
If you live in the Illinois Valley, chances are you live close to a river or stream. These waterways natural beauties and are part of what makes our area such a great place to live. However, living next to a stream is not always a “walk in the park.” Our waterways require our attention—sometimes, during high water, they demand it! Flooding and erosion are concerns for many landowners. This booklet has been designed to offer suggestions about things you can do ahead of time to ensure your stream stays healthy and problem-free. Sometimes, the best defense is often a good offense. We hope you will gain some ideas about how to take care of rivers and streams on and near your land.
The purpose of this document is two-fold: to provide guidance for 1) assessing riparian conditions, functions, processes, and management or project actions; and 2) tracking changes in riparian characteristics over time. With vegetation as the key variable of interest, this document focuses on three critical areas in developing a riparian assessment framework: the importance of planning; data collection methods to assess riparian conditions, functions, or processes; and analysis to support project evaluation. Understanding the entire process of assessment, from the reasons for doing an assessment to the interpretation of information, is essential for the success of any riparian project and is critical for effective implementation of the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds.
Download (PDF): Oregon Riparian Assessment Framework (1MB)
A concise guide to planting native riparian trees and shrubs, including when to plant, how to plant, planting bailed or burlapped trees or shrubs, planting from containers, planting bare-rooted trees and shrubs, maintaining plants to healthy maturity, and riparian planting spacing guidelines.
Download (PDF): Guide to Native Riparian Trees and Shrub Planting (65KB)
Author: Bennett, M. Date: 2007
Listed as a noxious weed in Oregon, Himalayan blackberry rapidly occupies disturbed areas, is very difficult to eradicate once established, and tends to out-compete native vegetation. For those trying to restore or enhance native streamside vegetation, Himalayan blackberry control is a major problem.
This publication discusses the biology of Himalayan blackberry, its effects on riparian functions, and strategies for managing Himalayan blackberry specifically in riparian areas.
Download (PDF): Managing Himalayan Blackberry in western Oregon riparian areas (MB)
This guide to Himalayan Blackberry includes information on species description, origin and habitat, reproduction and basic ecology, ecological threat, and details a variety of control methods.
Download (PDF): Controlling Himalayan Blackberry in the Pacific Northwest (252KB)
This publication is a step-by-step guide to riparian tree planting in interior southwest Oregon, including Jackson and Josephine counties and the noncoastal portions of Douglas County. Compared to other parts of western Oregon, this area experiences hotter, drier summers, and lower annual precipitation, which poses unique challenges for the survival and growth of riparian plantings. While some details apply mainly to this region, the principles discussed are broadly applicable to tree-planting projects in riparian areas throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Download (PDF): A Guide to Riparian Tree Planting in Southwest Oregon (2MB)
The science of wetland prairie restoration has made significant strides in recent years, building on lessons learned locally in Oregon and Washington and on applied research and practice from prairie restoration efforts in the Midwest. This guide documents the valuable lessons learned in the Pacific Northwest so they can be successfully replicated. The focus is on agricultural lands, in part because a large percentage of the historic wetland prairie lands have been converted to agricultural uses and therefore some of the greatest potential for large scale restoration exists in these areas.
Download (PDF): Practical Guidelines for Wetland Prairie Restoration in the Willamette Valley, Oregon (104.8MB)
The Willamette Valley Native Plant Materials Partnership was formed in 2012 with the goals of pooling resources and coordinating production efforts to improve native plant material availability and lower costs for the Willamette Valley Ecoregion. The Willamette Valley has a variety of habitats that comprise a unique community of native plant species and ecosystem functions, and a high percentage of these habitats have been converted to agricultural, industrial, and residential uses. A regional approach to the coordination of native plant materials development, production, and restoration contribute to a more cohesive valley-wide effort to conserve and restore increasingly rare habitats such as wetlands, oak savanna, and upland prairies.
Download (PDF): Willamette Valley Native Plant Materials Partnership Strategic Plan 2013-2017 (3MB)
Abstract: Regional native seed cooperatives are emerging as a tool to vastly improve the availability of genetically appropriate native seed. Within a cooperative, practical and ecological requirements for native seed are balanced by bringing users and producers together to jointly develop genetic protocols. Regional native seed cooperatives promote a novel agricultural niche that requires the development of new farms, infrastructure, and techniques. The South Sound Prairies partnership has a successful cooperative that is used here as a case study to explore this model of seed production.
Download (PDF): Regional Native Seed Cooperatives (365KB)
Abstract: Propagation and planting of native plants for habitat restoration is a multi-faceted process. There are many issues over which there is general agreement among restorationists, but there are a number of subjects that cause disagreement. For example, restorationists often agree that native plants should be emphasized, but disagree over where seeds or transplants should come from. In this paper, I examine four areas of controversy: the use single or multiple sources of a species at a given restoration site (the SOMS debate), source distance of plant materials, the use of native plant selections, and the importance of one’s definition of “native plant.” I conclude that some of these issues may be resolved through careful research, while others will remain a matter of personal opinion, and can only be resolved through a clear statement and scope of objectives of each restoration project.
Download (PDF): Native Plant Propagation and Restoration Strategies (3MB)
Abstract: Seed is fundamental to broadscale plant restoration when the goal is to re-establish species and ecosystems. But climate change is expected to significantly influence plant reproduction, affecting seed availability and viability as well as planting opportunities. Meeting growing restoration targets within these constraints in new and unfamiliar climates will be challenging. Consequently, we need to develop a range of flexible strategies to ensure that sufficient volumes of viable seed are available to take advantage of planting opportunities under novel environmental scenarios. This requires coordinated leadership to align funding and planting timelines, using seed production areas to improve seed supply, building and maintaining infrastructure to stockpile seed, encouraging research to overcome storage and germination constraints, and developing and implementing new technologies in all of these areas. Increased tolerance to risk and failure will also be required as the application of current restoration practices may not be appropriate as the climate changes.
Download (PDF): Maximizing Seed Resources for Restoration in an Uncertain Future (226KB)
The information in Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide is gathered from interviews with native plant nurseries and seed producers, gained firsthand through Project Milkweed, and synthesized from scientific literature. It provides conservation professionals with information about optimizing milkweed seed production methods, offers guidance on incorporating milkweeds into restoration and revegetation efforts, and highlights milkweeds’ unique characteristics and value to wildlife. Native seed producers, restoration practitioners, land managers, monarch conservationists, gardeners, and landowners will all find this guide valuable.
Download (PDF): Milkweeds: a Conservation Practitioner’s Guide (6MB)
This document highlights work being done to address each goal of the Seed Strategy, followed by ecoregional projects that illustrate the extent of collaborations that are underway to lay the foundation for a more comprehensive network of collectors, testers, and growers to make native plants more available across the country.
Download (PDF): National Seed Strategy for Rehabilitation and Restoration: Making Progress (7MB)
The National Seed Strategy fosters interagency collaboration to guide the development, availability, and use of seed needed for timely and effective restoration. The Strategy includes four goals, with associated objectives and initial actions (2015-2020) to improve seed supplies for restoring healthy and productive native plant communities.
Download (PDF): National Seed Strategy for Rehabilitation and Restoration (13.7MB)
Detailed information on calculating seeding rates for single and mixed species, different broadcasting methods, and cutting agents. Developed for those working with native seed in the Willamette Valley, but details techniques that are useful in a variety of contexts.
Download (PDF): Seeding Rates and Methods (1.2MB)
The SER Primer presents a concise overview of the key concepts and fundamental principles upon which ecological restoration is based. With a wide readership from around the globe, the Primer includes the most widely-cited definition of ecological restoration and defines nine attributes of a restored ecosystem as the basis for determining when restoration has been successful.
Download (PDF): SER Primer on Ecological Restoration (713KB)