Rogue Basin Ecological Restoration Projects Review

A number of RNPP Partners are working on important ecological restoration projects in the Rogue Basin, and have shared information with us about their process and progress, including the species of native seeds used, and methods they have used for site preparation and ongoing care and monitoring. This information is shared with the intention of providing useful information to those wanting to start their own ecological restoration project in the Rogue Basin.

This table will be updated with more information as these ecological restoration projects progress, and with new restoration projects that RNPP partners undertake. 

Location & Habitats Present

Key Restoration Purposes

Plant Species Used (seed)

Site Preparation Methods

Seeding Method

Monitoring Methods

Notes

Location: Ashland, private property, valley floor

Habitat: Pasture & riparian


3.3 acres

Hazard fuels reduction, wildlife habitat enhancement, invasives mitigation, riparian restoration, restoring burn area

*Achyrachaena mollis
*Clarkia purpurea ssp. viminea
*Poa secunda
*Pseudoroegneria spicata

Removal of flammable brush along driveway and near structures, and removal of invasive species in pasture and riparian zones using tools and physical labor.

Hand seeding

Regular visual surveys

Achyrachaena mollis: Mid-november 2018 broadcast, have not seen any survival. Pseudoroegneria spicata: Mid-november 2018 broadcast in field, some germination and survival. Poa secunda: Broadcast fall last 2018, germinated fairly well, appreciated water during the 2019 summer. Clarkia purpurea ssp. viminea: Mid-november broadcast, good germination, not certain if it persisted to going to seed.

Location: Sams Valley (Gold Hill), private property, oak woodland & mixed conifer forest.

Habitat:  Riparian, mixed conifer forest & oak woodland

20 acres

Small diameter tree removal, invasives mitigation, hazard fuels reduction, wildlife habitat enhancement

*Achillea millefolium
*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Achyrachaena mollis
*Agoseris grandiflora
*Bromus laevipes
*Castilleja tenuis
*Clarkia purpurea ssp. purpurea
*Collinsia grandiflora
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Escholzia caespitosa
*Festuca californica
*Festuca roemeri
*Grindelia nana
*Lasthenia california *Madia elegans ssp. densifolia
*Penstemon anguineus
*Pseudoroegneria spicata
*Rupertia physodes
*Wyethia angustifolia

Removal of invasives by hand pulling and weed wrench, removing small diameter trees, limbing up remaining trees, chipping woody residue to remain in forest, planting native vegetation cover (seeds and shrubs).

Hand seeding. Fescues with rake and foot trod in some areas. Hand-mixes of seeds boot-stomped in before hand-made cages put around woody native shrubs. Some broadcasting,

Seeding in winters 2018-19 and 2019-20. Several species will be seeded in winter 2020-21.

Regular visual surveys, at least weekly during new native shrub watering season, May- October 2019. Photographing wildflowers blooming when spotted.

Most of 5 bunchgrass species held back and seeded in winter 2019-2020.

Flower species and grasses all compete with Scotch broom seedbank that continues, as well as Himalayan blackberry.

Location: Little Butte Creek, Eagle Point. City of Eagle Point, Medford Water Comission & Bureau of Land Management partnership 

Habitat:  Riparian

2 acres

Flood plain restoration, wildlife habitat enhancement, invasives mitigation, riparian restoration, improved water quality, improved native plant biodiversity

*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Achillea millefolium
*Asclepias fascicularis
*Clarkia purpurea ssp. viminea
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca californica
*Festuca roemeri

Recontouring of bank slopes, log jams buried in banks, blackberry and reed canary grass removal, regrading of previously blocked creek channel, and planting and seeding of native plants.

Location: Rogue River property of Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife 

Habitat: Riparian

Restoring burned area

*Elymus glaucus
*Pseudoroegneria spicata

Leaves removed to expose bare earth before seeding

Seed broadcast and raked into earth. Hay applied to cover seeded bare earth.

Plot development and monitoring

A 50 x 100 foot plot was established on 11-9-2018. Leaves were removed to expose the bare soil and the seeds were raked into the ground. The plot was treated with 6 lbs per acre (.70 lbs) of Elymus glaucus. On 1/3 of the short side of each plot (16.5 x 100 feet), an additional 6 lbs per acre (.23 lbs) was applied. On ½ of the long side of the plot (50 x 50 feet), hay was applied to cover the bare ground. Didn’t get final pictures but it sounds like the seed didn’t take very well. A 10 ft x 10 ft test plot of Pseudoroegneria spicata was created nearby on 11-9-2018. Leaves were raked to remove the bare soil, seeds applied, raked in, and the soil was left bare. No luck here either.

Private Property assisted by ODFW

Restoring burned area

*Elymus glaucus
*Melica hartfordii

Seed to be broadcast Fall 2019

Location: Denman Wildlife Area (ODFW)

Habitat: Riparian & meadow

7 acres

Restoring burned area

*Achillea millifolium
*Bromus californicus
*Elymus glaucus
*Lotus crassicaulis
*Melica hartfordii
*Psoralea simplex

No-till seed drill

Visual surveys

Only 4-5 passes were made on the outer edges of the meadow with the no-till seed drill, because application rate was too high starting off. No seed was applied in the center of the meadow, or in areas with high density of blackberry. Some seed did well (BRCA) but there’s still a lot of non-native competition. Didn’t see any LOCRA.

Location:  Rogue River Preserve (Southern Oregon Land Conservancy).

Habitat: Riparian and oak woodlands / savanna

352 acres

Invasives mitigation and restoring disturbed areas

*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Elymus glaucus
*Festuca californica

Disturb soil before seeding

Spread seed on disturbed soil in winter after weed removal

Visual surveys

The Elymus has not come up at the Japanese knotweed site, but other bunchgrasses are coming up along the roadside.

Location: Sampson Creek Preserve (Selberg Institute).

Habitat: Upland meadows, oak woodlands

4800 acres

Pollinator habitat enhancement, invasives mitigation

Purchased seed: *Achillea millefolium
*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Agoseris grandiflora
*Asclepias fasicularis
*Asclepias speciosa
*Clarkia purpurea
*Danthonia californica
*Elymus glaucus
*Festuca roemeri
*Lomatium californicum
*Lupinus microcarpus
*Madia elegans
Seed Collected on site:
*Achillea millefolium
*Amesikia meniesii
*Asclepias fasicularis
*Brodiea elegans
*Bromus carinatus
*Bromus leavipes
*Calochortus tolmiei
*Cirsium ciliolatum
*Clarkia purpurea
*Clarkia gracilis
*Cynoglossum grande
*Dichelostemma congestum
*Elymus glaucus
*Epilobium brachycarpum
*Ericameria nauseosa
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca californica
*Festuca roemeri
*Frittilaria affinis
*Lomatium californicum
*Lomatium nudicaule
*Lomatium utriculatum
*Lomatium macrocarpum
*Lomatium Triternatum
*Lupinus microcarpus
*Madia elegans
*Madia gracilis
*Sanicula crassicaulis
*Stipa lemmonii
*Toxicoscordion venenosus
*Triteleia hendersonii
*Wyethia angustifolia

Weed whacking in area where planting happened, prescribed burn in area where seed was broadcast

Broadcast after prescribed burn

Test site within the prescribed burn area is being monitored for seed germination success

Location: Bear Creek near Pine Street in Central Point (Rogue Valley Council of Governments)

Habitat:  Riparian

20 acres

Restoring burned area and improving native plant biodiversity

*Achillea millefolium
*Amsinckia menziesii
*Asclepias fascicularis
*Bromus carinatus
*Bromus laevipes
*Bromus laevipes
*Clarkia purpurea
*Elymus glaucus
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca roemeri
*Grindelia nana

Spot spraying blackberry with herbicide

Broadcast seeding, using straw / mulch to cover

Monthly observation monitoring to check native plant and invasive growth

Location: Kane Creek / Stage Rd Culvert Replacement (The Freshwater Trust)

Habitat:  Riparian

Restoring disturbed area, improved water quality, improved wildlife habitat, invasives mitigation

*Achillea millefolium
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca roemeri

Treatment of invasives with herbicide

Broadcast seeding

Photo point, qualitative, and quantitative monitoring will be conducted on the project site.

Location: Hwy 99 Applegate River Bridge (The Freshwater Trust)

Habitat:  Riparian

Restoring disturbed area, improved water quality, improved wildlife habitat, invasives mitigation

*Achillea millefolium
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca idahoensis ssp. roemeri
*Festuca californica

Treatment of invasives with herbicide

Broadcast seeding

Photo point, qualitative, and quantitative monitoring will be conducted on the project site.

Location: Whetstone Savana Preserve Vernal Pool Ash Swale (The Freshwater Trust)

Habitat: Oak savanna, prairie and vernal pools

Restoring disturbed area, improved water quality, improved wildlife habitat, invasives mitigation

Manual, mechanical and chemical forms of weed suppression (with extra care being used in use of chemicals)

The bare ground between plantings will be seeded with a site-appropriate native species mix.

In person site assessments and qualitative monitoring will be used to adaptively manage the site

Location:  Eagle Point solar farm (Understory Consulting)

Habitat: Pasture / prairie

45 acres

Improved native plant biodiversity, improved wildlife habitat, invasives mitigation

*Achillea millefolium
*Agoseris grandiflora
*Amsinckia menziesii
*Asclepias fascicularis
*Camassia quamash
*Carex densa
*Carex pachystachya
*Carex tumulicola
*Clarkia purpurea
*Collinsia grandiflora
*Cynoglossum grande
*Daucus pusillus
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca roemeri
*Gillia capitata
*Grindelia nana
*Hemizonia fitchii
*Helianthus bolanderi
*Juncus tenuis
*Lomatium utriculatum
*Lupinus adsurgens
*Lupinus bicolor
*Lupinus microcarpus
*Madia elegans
*Navarretia intertextata
*Plagiobothrys figuratus
*Ranunculus austrooreganus
*Wyethia angustifolia

Herbicide, mowing, box scraping

Drill seeding, broadcast seeding

Quadrats arranged on a grid throughout the property

After one year, invasive grass cover decreased by about 99%. However, that was mostly replaced by invasive annual forbs along with some of the native species that we seeded. Native cover only increased by about 3%. Follow-up treatments will include pre-emergent herbicide to try and limit the germination of annual weeds and kill the seed bank. Additional native seeding, including more grasses will occur after the weed seed bank is acceptable exhausted.

Location:  Medford foothills (Pacific Slope Consulting) 

Habitat: Oak woodlands, oak savanna, mixed woodlands

70 acres

Hazard fuels reduction, wildlife habitat enhancement, small diameter tree removal, improved native plant biodiversity

Small pile burning

Hand seeding

Growing season species tally for 1 - 2 years following seeding

Location: Medford Water Commission Vernal Pools Preserve (Terra Science Inc)

Habitat: Meadow / prairie, vernal pools, wetland

17 acres

Invasives mitigation, improved water quality, improved native plant biodiversity, restoring disturbed area

*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Achyrachaena mollis
*Amsinckia menziesii
*Clarkia purpurea ssp. purpurea
*Danthonia californica
*Poa secunda
*Pseudoroegneria spicata

Prescribed burn (every five years). Shallow discing of uplands prior to broadcast.

Hand seeding

Revisit annual vegetation plots; square meter vegetation analysis during peak bloom periods.

Upland mound data assessment compared pre-burn baseline vegetation communities to post fire and seed introduction. Analysis documents a 91.9% reduction of invasive Taeniatherum caput medusa with a 188.4% increase of native species atop mound landforms.

Location: Rogue Valley Manor, Medford

Habitat: Meadow / prairie

1 acre

Post construction restoration, improve native plant biodiversity

*Achnatherum lemmonii
*Achillea millefolium
*Achyrachaena mollis
*Amsinckia menziesii
*Clarkia purpurea
*Collinsia grandiflora
*Daucus pusillus
*Eriophyllum lanatum
*Festuca roemeri
*Koeleria macrantha
*Lupinus microcarpus

Equipment grading

Broadcast seeding in the Fall

Visual surveys

Location: US Army Corp of Engineers site in Trail, OR

Habitat: Pasture, oak savanna, riparian, mixed woodlands, recent burn, oak woodlands

300 acres

Hazard fules reduction, restoring burned area, invasives mitigation, small diameter tree removal, improved native plant biodiversity

Varies, minimal site prep due to lack of funds / staffing resources

Hand seeding

Visual surveys

Location: Whetstone Savanna Preserve (The Nature Conservancy) 

Habitat: Oak woodlands, oak savanna, meadow / prairie, wetland

220 acres

Restoring burned area, invasives mitigation, improved native plant biodiversity

Prescribed fire and harrowing

Hand seeding

Quadrat monitoring and photo points. At a minimum, assess plant guilds such as native annual forbs, non-native annual grasses.

Location:  Sterling Creek, private property.

Habitat: Mixed woodlands, oak woodlands

11 acres

Small diameter tree removal, restoring disturbed areas, improving native plant biodiversity, invasives mitigation, improving wildlife habitat

*Achyrachaena mollis
*Bromus laevipes
*Festuca californica
*Festuca roemeri
*Festuca subulata
*Koeleria cristata
*Melica harfordii
*Pseudognaphalium canescens
*Stipa lemmonii + a range of native herb seeds collected on site

Small pile burning, mechanical removal of invasives

Raking ground before and after hand seeding, including directly into remains of burn pile sites

Visual surveys and photos

February Native Plant of the Month: Snow Queen

RNPP has a Native Plant of the Month column in the Rogue Basin Partnership newsletter! You can find the full RBP February newsletter here, and our Native Plant of the Month Column copied below.

Snow Queen (Synthyris reniformis) can be seen blossoming close to the ground in coniferous forests and woodlands from early February, making it one of the earliest native blooms to be seen each year in southern Oregon. But it can be very easily overlooked at only 2-6 inches tall, with flowers varying from white to blue to purple, so keep your eyes on the ground if you want to spot them. I noticed this lovely specimen (pictured) on the Sterling Mine Ditch trail near the Little Applegate recently, and once I noticed this plant, I suddenly realized they were everywhere!

There are six varieties of Synthyris (in the Figwort family) in Oregon, but the Snow queen is the species most commonly found at low to mid elevations. It is native to the Pacific NW, from the Puget Sound in Washington, to Northern California. With its flowers arriving so early, the Snow queen is an important source of food for pollinators and nectar eaters. This adds to the many reasons why the perennial Snow queen can be a great choice for planting in your garden.

Written by Lilia Letsch, Rogue Native Plant Partnership

Restoration Best Practices: Site Preparation Methods

Welcome to the first post in our new series about best practices in ecological restoration. Through this series we hope to provide an accessible but thorough outline of the most important elements of implementing ecological restoration projects. Nearly everything to do with ecological restoration is complex, and there is still a lot of research being done into best practices, so it is important to keep an eye open for new information. Our goal is to outline the basics, and point you in the direction of more detailed information if you choose to go in depth on any topics.

We are starting our ecological restoration best practices series with a focus on site preparation. The importance of site preparation is often underestimated but can have a huge impact on the success of your restoration project. If you would like to go more in depth into a range of site preparation issues, we highly recommend the Xerces Society “Organic Site Preparation for Wildflower Establishment” document.

Timing

Seeds:

The time of year that you choose to disperse native plant seeds at your restoration site is extremely important. Native plant seeding usually happens either in the fall or spring in the Pacific Northwest. In Southern Oregon, fall is generally the best time to get seeds in the ground, as it gives time for in-ground stratification (cold treatment) and mimics the seeding cycles of most native plants. Early spring can also be a hard time to do site preparation if the ground is too wet, or covered in snow! But spring seeding is still a good option if site preparation is possible and the seeds you are using don’t require a deep winter stratification.

Containerized Plants:

Planting potted native plants is generally best done in the fall to provide time for settling and root growth, but early spring is an option if the ground is not too frozen and supplemental water can be provided if spring rains are not sufficient.

Surveying Your Site

Recording the plants that already exist on your site is a great opportunity to better know the plants, their needs, and ways the native plants can be protected during the site preparation phase of your project. You can just write down a list in a notebook, or keep a spreadsheet where you can update information about shifts in flowering, seeding and other interesting observations you make. It’s also a really good idea to keep a record of any weeds you can identify and get to know their lifecycles, best times of year to work on removing them, and the best practices for how to reduce their impact on your restoration site.

Weed Removal

Inadequate weed suppression can have massive impacts on the success of your ecological restoration project. For most weeds, an important control method is removing or cutting back the plant before it goes to seed. Different weed plants tend to require a variety of removal methods, used in progression. Some of these methods include solarization and sheet mulching, mowing, flame weeding or burning, and selective and careful herbicide (incl. organic) use. To dive further into best practices for removing some of our most detrimental weeds in Southern Oregon, check out these documents:

Solarization and sheet mulching: these methods are best used for smaller sites without steep slopes. Solarization utilizes large sheets of clear UV-stable plastic to cover an area containing weeds for 2-6 months in warmer climates, and up to 6 months in colder climates. Many trials have shown solarization to be an extremely successful method of weed removal, as the heat that builds up under the plastic not only kills plants, but also any weed seed bank that has built up in the soil. Occultation is a variation on solarization, where thick black plastic tarps are used to cut of access to sunlight, and produce large amounts of heat. Sheet mulching is useful in areas that are too shady for solarization to be effective, or in areas where laying out a large piece of plastic is impractical due to landscape features. Sheet mulching involves layering nitrogen and carbon based materials to smother weeds and stop the seed bank from being able to germinate. For example, a layer of nitrogen-based material (eg. animal or plant composted materials, pellets, meals, grass clippings) is then topped with a layer of carbon-based material (eg. cardboard, paper, sawdust, woodbark), and then these layers are repeated 1-2 more times, making sure that a heavier carbon-based material is on top to hold everything down. 

Occultation with silage tarps at Jackson County OSU Extension

Mowing: this can be a very useful tool in ensuring a weed population doesn’t get to produce seed. For most weeds, using a mower or weed wacker to remove any seed heads before they -are pollinated is a fast and efficient way to deplete the plant’s ability to reproduce. That said, it can be hard to time mowing so that the plant doesn’t have the time and energy to enter into the flowering stage again, while also navigating any fire season restrictions on cutting dry grass. This method involves getting to know your weeds and their reproductive cycle well, and should be used in tandem with other weed control methods.

Hand-held flame weeder

Fire: flame weeders are an excellent resource for spring-time weed control. They must be used with great caution and attendance to fire restrictions, but they are an efficient and targeted method for removing weeds without impacting surrounding native plants. If you have a large area that would benefit from prescribed fire, get in touch with your local prescribed fire practitioners to see if there are any opportunities available for this work to be done on your land by trained professionals. In Southern Oregon, The Klamath Siskiyou Oak Network may be able to point you toward prescribed fire resources.

Smother cover crops: in areas where weed pressure is low to moderate, cover crops can be used to smother weed plants. Smother cover crops can also improve soil health and provide temporary forage for wildlife, including pollinators. This technique is best used on farmland or pasture that has access to irrigation and farming equipment. Certain varieties of buckwheat, sorghum, millet, oats, rye and vetch can be planted. Depending on the cover crop planted, they can not only compete aggressively with weeds for space, but also alter the nutrients in the soil and release allelopathic substances into the soil to make it undesirable for weed germination and growth. Timing and duration of the cover crop also varies depending upon species, but is very important to ensure that weed suppression is maximized.  

Herbicides: using synthetic herbicides to control weeds is a very contentious issue, but best practices generally determine that they should be used as a last resort, and in a very targeted and well-planned manner. This is particularly important in riparian zones where herbicides can make their way into the aquatic ecosystem. Herbicides alone are rarely able to control the most problematic weeds, and should be considered part of a regime that involves other weed control methods. There are some organic herbicides available to use, and successful use depends on targeted plant species. For more information it is worth checking out the “Roadside Habitat for Monarchs: Monarch Butterflies, Weeds and Herbicides” and “Organic Pesticides: Minimizing Risks to Pollinators and Beneficial Insects” documents produced by the Xerces Society.

Ground Disturbance

If you are utilizing native seeds in your restoration project, gentle ground disturbance is a useful step to take just before you are set to distribute the seed. It helps the seed penetrate the soil more rapidly and protect it from being washed elsewhere by rain, and from browsing wildlife (birds love seed!).

Site preparation: raking in the Ashland watershed

Raking: this is a great method for restoration projects in woodlands, forest floors, sloped locations and small areas being seeded. Hand raking disturbs the ground enough to allow seed to get into the soil, but doesn’t disturb soil structure or existing native plants as much as more intensive ground disturbance. It also allows you to easily avoid any preexisting native plants that you are trying to protect.

Light tillage: you can also use a small tiller / cultivator to prepare an area for seeding. This is particularly useful in pasture and farmland. If you have a weed issues, this is a method that should be considered carefully, as ground disturbance can expose weed seed banks in the soil to the ideal conditions for growth.

Keep an eye out for our next blog post about best practices in native plant seeding for your ecological restoration project! Don’t forget that we are always updating the Rogue Native Plant Partnership Resources Library with new useful resources for ecological restoration projects – from backyards to woodlands and everything in between!

More Useful Site Preparation Resources

January Native Plant of the Month: Snowberry

RNPP has started writing a new Native Plant of the Month column for the Rogue Basin Partnership newsletter! You can find the full RBP January newsletter here, and our Native Plant of the Month Column copied below.

Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) is a common deciduous shrub, growing 3-6’ in riparian, swamp, moist meadow and open forest habitats, from sea to middle elevations. What makes it so lovely at this time of year is that it’s leafless stems are graced with clusters of bright white berries that sharply stand out against the winter landscape.

Snowberry is in the Honeysuckle family, and just like Honeysuckle berries, they are not edible to humans. The whole plant is toxic to humans, although records show that Native Americans have used the berries medicinally for a variety of purposes, and the stems for arrow shafts.

The berries have a mild saponin content, which produces foam when mixed with water. The whole plant is excellent grazing for wild and domestic animals, and birds enjoy the berries and cover that the shrubs provide. Birds also disperse the seeds widely, although the plant’s main reproductive method is to sprout new shoots from its spreading rhizome. As a result, you can often see it growing in quite substantial thickets, which provide great cover for small mammals.

If you are looking to replant a disturbed or eroded site, Snowberry is a great choice due it’s relatively fast growth and rhizomatous spreading. It grows in full sun, but tends to prefer some shade, and well-drained soil.

Written by Lilia Letsch, Rogue Native Plant Partnership

November Native Plant of the Month: Rubber Rabbitbrush

RNPP has started writing a new Native Plant of the Month column for the Rogue Basin Partnership newsletter! You can find the full RBP November newsletter here, and our Native Plant of the Month Column copied below.

Native Plant of the Month: Rubber Rabbitbrush

Rubber Rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa) is a small perennial shrub that grows in a wide variety of harsh habitats from the west coast all the way to Texas and North Dakota. In the Southern Cascades you can still see the last of its flowers in November, but its prime flowering season is August-October. It’s bright and prolific yellow flowers are a very abundant source of food for pollinating insects and birds, and the leaves are an important winter food for browsing mammals.

Rubber Rabbitbrush is an excellent revegetation plant in disturbed areas, as it propagates easily and grows fast in a range of poor soil conditions. It also thrives in dry environments, making it a great choice for xeriscaping (landscapes designed to reduce or eliminate the need for irrigation). It is often found growing in desert-like habitats alongside sagebrush – both of which are in the Asteraceae (sunflower) family. Its deep growing roots also make it very useful for stabilizing ground prone to erosion or damaged by mining.

Ethnobotanical uses of the plant include making a yellow dye from the flowers, using the rubbery stems in basket making, and making tea and chewing gum. As its name suggests, it can actually be used to make rubber from the plant’s sap. Rubber production potential varies depending on the growing conditions, but it is known to produce more rubbery sap in dryer, hotter conditions.

Taxonomy fact: the “nauseosa” species name relates to the pungent smell the plant gives off when the leaves are rubbed. Some say it’s a pineapple-like aroma, while it’s more foul and rubbery to others.

 

October Native Plant of the Month: Vinegarweed

RNPP has started writing a new Native Plant of the Month column for the Rogue Basin Partnership newsletter! You can find the full RBP October newsletter here, and our Native Plant of the Month Column copied below.

Native Plant of the Month: Vinegarweed

While walking through open grassy woodlands and prairies during late summer, you may have encountered a strong smell of minty vinegar on the breeze, and maybe even heard the hum of insects that eagerly congregate on the annual herb commonly known as Vinegarweed. The attractive purple flowers are an important late summer pollen source for many insects, with flowers known to bloom into October.

This sun-loving herb is quite shade intolerant, and prefers dry soils below 2,200 ft between Washington and Baja California. It is known to have phytotoxic properties that prevent other plants from growing happily around it. This could make it an excellent plant for competing with invasive herbs. It is also unlikely to be palatable to browsing animals due to its highly fragrant oils. Seeds mature and can be collected in late fall, and sown directly (raked into soil) in fall or early spring.

Vinegarweed is known to be highly medicinal, and has been used by west coast tribes for many healing purposes, including for treatment of colds, throat inflammation, headaches, infected sores and aching teeth.

The species name Lanceolatum means “lance-shaped”, which relates to the shape of Vinegarweed’s leaves. It’s always nice when the scientific name relates to the plant’s appearance! Its lovely little purple flowers are also a great way to identify the plant, but the easiest way to identify Vinegarweed by far is its powerful fragrance – you can’t miss it!

USDA Plant Guide: https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_trla4.pdf

Upper Table Rock Seed Blitz and Yellow Starthistle Pulls

June 2017 – June 2019

For the third year in a row, volunteers with The Nature Conservancy and the Rogue Native Plant Partnership gathered on the slopes of Upper Table Rock to collect wildflower seed for future restoration projects and hand pull the highly invasive yellow starthistle.

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Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) is an exotic annual herbaceous plant in the knapweed genus. The seeds from this plant can germinate whenever there is enough moisture in the soil. It starts as a small bluish green rosette and grows slowly through the winter months. Once the heat of the summer comes this plant bolts to produce yellow flowers subtended by thorny spikes.

Although yellow starthistle is an annual species that dies every year, it is able to produce a long taproot that depletes the soil of moisture making it nearly impossible for native species to grow nearby. This species is particularly difficult to manage because it can continue to produce flowers and seeds even after continual mowing or grazing by producing flowers very low to the ground. At Upper Table Rocks, years of volunteer-based hand-pulling has resulted in the almost complete eradication of this plant from the wildflower meadows at the site!

Ecological restoration involves many steps. The first step is often to change the disturbance patterns at the site (in this case stop the yellow starthistle invasion) followed by seeding the site with native wildflower and grass seeds. These precious seeds are hard to come by and expensive in Southern Oregon. To help tackle these challenges, volunteers with The Rogue Native Plant Partnership help to collect wildflower and grass seeds from native plants nearby. Once enough seed has been collected, it will either be used directly on the site or grown out at a nearby farm (increased) if more seed is needed than can reasonably be collected from wild plants.

AUTHOR:

Kathryn Prive
Rogue Native Plant Partnership

 

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Restoring huckleberry habitat as a cultural resource

On September 26th a large group of volunteers including Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians members, Forest Service and BLM employees and Rogue Native Plant Partnership volunteers converged on a recently burnt area just outside the town of Prospect in the High Cascades to help replant 1500 mountain huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) plants.

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The area was burned during the 2017 Broken Lookout fire. The well-established plants were grown by the Forest Service’s nursery in Dorena from seed fortuitously collected onsite only two weeks before the Broken Lookout Fire started. This project is a collaboration between the Forest Service, the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians and the Rogue Native Plant Partnership to restore an important cultural food resource.

It was a brisk but beautiful day up in the mountains, and after a smudging ceremony led by members of the Cow Creek Tribe, everyone got their planting equipment ready and hiked into the burn area to get huckleberries into the ground. In addition, monitoring plots were surveyed as part of a multi-year effort to obtain data that will help develop an understanding of the success of the replanting efforts.  There are still 8000 more plants to go in the ground, with that work being completed by contractors at the time of writing.

Huckleberries continue to be an incredibly important cultural food resource for Native Americans, and so many community members and government agencies coming together to support the replanting efforts is a powerful acknowledgement of understanding the huckleberry’s cultural significance. Thank you to everyone who came out for this great replanting effort!

AUTHOR:

Lilia Letsch
Rogue Native Plant Partnership

 

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Collecting milkweed seedpods for local pollinators and landowners

Ten Rogue Valley community members come together at the Forest Service’s J. Herbert Stone Nursery in Central Point to volunteer for a milkweed seedpod collecting event on September 9th. Even with a decent breeze sending the seed fluff (known more officially as “coma”) flying everywhere, we still managed to collect large amounts of both narrowleaf milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis) and showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) seed pods. The beds of narrowleaf and showy milkweed have been funded by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the seeds will be used in special seed mixes being prepared for landowners to enhance pollinator habitat on private lands in the region.

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Milkweed is a fantastic perennial flowering herb that is much loved by many pollinators, including the at-risk Monarch butterfly. Not too long-ago milkweed was an incredibly widespread plant, but has been eradicated in many areas in favor of agricultural crops, and now faces a lot of competition from introduced invasive plants. Luckily it is an easy plant to grow, and efforts are being put into introducing it back into the landscape on a broader scale. It couldn’t happen soon enough for the Monarch!

Many thanks to all of the volunteers who came out to help collect milkweed seeds and contribute to important pollinator habitat restoration!

Interesting taxonomy fact: In 1753, Swedish Botanist Carl Linnaeus named the genus Asclepias after Asclepius, the Greek god of healing.

AUTHOR:

Lilia Letsch
Rogue Native Plant Partnership

 

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Restoring disturbed ground on Mt Ashland with native forbs

June 2nd, 2019

We had a fantastic day on Mt Ashland on June 1st, working with a group of volunteers to plant out 4,500 native plant plugs in an area next to the Mt Ashland lodge that was recently disturbed by heavy machinery. Thanks to the folks at the Mt Ashland Ski Lodge for helping organize volunteers and providing snacks and drinks for everyone!

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The plants were grown by Silver Springs Nursery in the Applegate, from seed that we collected in 2018 on Mt Ashland. The species that were planted out included Oregon Sunshine (Eriophyllum lanatum), Coyote Mint (Monardella sheltonii), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Roemer’s Fescue (Festuca roemeri), Squirretail grass (Elymus elymoides) and Sulphur Buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum). Once grown in, these plants will create a beautiful meadow of wildflowers and native bunch grasses, and great habitat for pollinators and birds!

Post-planting care will involve regular watering for the first year, and ensuring that the area is cordoned off from the public so that the small plants won’t be damaged under foot. We look forward to monitoring the survival rate and growth of these plants, and enjoying the first flush of wildflowers next spring.

Thanks to the amazing volunteers!

AUTHOR:

Lilia Letsch
Rogue Native Plant Partnership

 

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Growing plants for seed production at Long Shadow Fields

April 25, 2019

Long Shadow Fields in Talent is one of a handful of local farms working with the Rogue Native Plant Partnership to develop a new model of native forb seed production. Seed for native forbs – herbs, and grasses – can often be hard to come by in the amounts required for local ecological restoration projects. Growing such plants out for seeds is often cost prohibitive due to the amount of time it can take for plants to develop to the flowering stage, and the amount of labor required to harvest the seed. But through a non-profit / small farm partnership, we are hoping to alleviate the risks and pressures of growing native seed for restoration projects in the Rogue Basin.

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Gary Kliewer at Long Shadow Fields grew a selection of native herbs and forbs from seeds that RNPP supplied from our wild seed harvesting events. A volunteer planting event was organized to help get a lot of the small native herbs in the ground. RNPP will continue to support Gary’s native seed production through volunteer labor, funding through grants, and technical support from a network of other experts in the Pacific Northwest.

The volunteer planting event on April 24th was a great success, we planted hundreds of native plugs and did some great networking and knowledge sharing. Thank you so much to everyone that came and helped! Keep an eye open for future events at Long Shadow Fields and other local farmers we are working with to grow regionally adapted native herbs and grasses for ecological restoration projects happening in our community.

Planting Wyethia into straight rows for ease of mechanical weeding.

AUTHOR:

Lilia Letsch
Rogue Native Plant Partnership

 

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